(If you do not see a RENEW button, please select a plan
and enter any code you may have received in a renewal notice online or in print.)
If you have ANY questions at all, please contact support@claviercompanion.com
17 minutes reading time (3479 words)

What does instrumental music study really do to the brain?

When I was in my doctoral program at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, I learned about the famous "Mozart Effect" and how that research study was discredited. Yet many still cling to the notion that listening to Mozart's music makes one smarter. In reality, Rauscher's 1993 study showed spatial abilities were temporarily increased for 15-20 minutes. But whether listening to Mozart created that phenomenon, or whether listening to works by other master composers would induce that same effect was not shown. Having studied piano seriously from an early age and other instruments in my youth as well, my curiosity naturally lead me to investigate valid research on what learning to play a musical instrument really does to the brain. I knew its obvious effects for myself and others were positive and far-reaching, but, being a researcher, I wanted to know what science had to say about its benefits, if any. So, I began my quest to find out. I looked into published neuroscience research studies for answers to my question: What does instrumental music study really do to the brain? Here is what I found...

Students involved in instrumental music study before age seven have remarkably high brain plasticity with significant benefits that extend throughout their lives. Those who start music study early on reap the most effective and long lasting benefits. Age four is the most advantageous age to begin formal music lessons. By age seven, the brain loses some of the plasticity that makes young children remarkable learners. That 'sensitive period' of learning in which students are capable of absorbing all kinds of information ends at age 7. Hearing peaks at that age, then slowly declines with time. Taking advantage of the almost magical 'sensitive period' for learning is definitely the way to go for acquiring music, language, and other important skills.

Now let's explore some fun findings on the effects of instrumental music study on the brain. Most related research studies involved comparing musicians' brains to non-musicians' brains or music students to non-music students. Most subjects played piano or violin at varying skill levels in a wide spectrum encompassing both beginners and professionals. In one study, neuroscientists discovered that male musicians had 5% larger brains than male non-musicians! In other studies, greater volume was specifically detected and measured in the cerebellum, planum temporale, corpus callosum, motor cortex, gray matter, and white matter of musicians compared to non-musicians. Aside from the structural variances manifested in musicians' brains, the functional benefits uncovered included increased brain plasticity, better white matter connectivity, faster cortical thickness maturation, and less cerebral cortex thinning. But the revealed differences between musician and non-musician brains didn't stop there. Here is the lengthy list complied of cognitive gains researchers found musicians had over non-musicians. Musicians showed improved

• Executive Functioning

• Multi-tasking

• Problem Solving

• Cognitive Development

• Emotional Regulation

• Brain Health

• Spatial Abilities

• Memory

• Attention

• Concentration

• Language

• Phonemic Awareness

• Speech Perception

• Pitch Perception

• Verbal and Non-verbal Reasoning

• Understanding of Emotion in Voices

• Listening Skills Retained Through the Aging Process

• Transfer of Information from Working Memory to Long-term Memory

• Less Right or Left Handedness

• Equal Use of Hands in Pianists

• More Than Twice Better Accuracy Distinguishing Touch and Hearing

So, the answer to my initial research question about what instrumental music study does to the brain was answered with an unforeseen avalanche of noteworthy neuroscience studies full of significant conclusions valuable for students, parents, teachers, and musicians. Albert Einstein once said: "If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music." Can anyone imagine how much smarter Einstein would have been if he had pursued music study more intensely and become a musician? 


Alluri, V., Toiviainen, P, Jääskeläinen, I., Glerean, E., Sams, M., & Brattico, E. (2012). Large-scale brain networks emerge from dynamic processing of musical timbre, key and rhythm. NeuroImage, 59, 4, 3677-3689.

Andrews, M. W., Dowling, W. J., Bartlett, J. C., & Halpern, A. R. (1998). Identification of speeded and slowed familiar melodies by younger, middle-aged, and older musicians and non-musicians. Psychology. Aging, 13, 462–471.

Baer, L., Park, M., Bailey, J., Chakravarty, M., Li, K., & V. Penhune. (2015). Regional cerebellar volumes are related to early musical training and finger tapping performance. NeuroImage, Vol. 109.

Bahr, N. & Christensen, C. A. (2000). Inter-domain transfer between mathematical skills and musicianship.J. Struct. Learn. Intell. Syst, 14, 187–19.

Bangert, M. & Schlaug G. (2006). Specialization of the specialized in features of external human brain morphology. Eur. J. Neuroscience24, 1832–1834.

Barret, H., & Barker, H. (1973). Cognitive pattern perception and musical performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 36, 1187-1193.

Barrett, K. C., Ashley, R., Strait, D. L., & Kraus, N. (2013). Art and science: How musical training shapes the brain. Front. Psychology, 4, 713.

Bengtsson, S. L., Nagy, Z., Skare, S., Forsman, L., Forssberg, H., & Ullé F. (2005). Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. Nat. Neurosci., 8, 1148-1150.

Besson, M., Faita, F., & Requin, J. (1994). Brain waves associated with musical incongruities differ for musicians and non-musicians. Neuroscience Letters, 168, 101-105.

Bever, T., & Chiarello, R. (1974). Cerebral dominance in musicians and non-musicians. Science, 185, 537-539.

Bidelman, G. & Alain, C. (2015). Musical training orchestrates coordinated neuroplasticity in auditory brainstem and cortex to counteract age-related declines in categorical vowel perception. The Journal of Neuroscience, 35 (3), 1240-1249.

Bilhartz, T. D., Bruhn, R. A., & Olson, J. E. (1999). The effect of early music training on child cognitive development.J. Appl. Dev. Psychol,20, 615–636.

Boyke, J., Driemeyer, J., Gaser, C., Büchel, C. & May, A. (2008). Training-induced brain structure changes in the elderly.J. Neurosci,28, 7031–7035.

Costa-Giomi, E. (1999). The effects of three years of piano instruction on cognitive development. Journal of Research in Music Education, 47, 198-212.

Costa-Giomi, E. (2000). The relationship between absolute pitch and spatial abilities. Paper presentation at the International Conference of Music Perception and Cognition.

Degé, F. & Schwarzer, G. (2011). The effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. Front. Psychol, 2, 124.

DeNora, T. (2010). Emotion as social emergence: Perspectives from music sociology. 

Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, 159–183.

Dowling, W. J., Bartlett, J. C., Halpern, A. R., & Andrews, M. W. (2008). Melody recognition at fast and slow tempos: effects of age, experience, and familiarity.Percept. Psychophys, 70, 496–502.

Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. (2004).

Changes in grey matter induced by training.Nature, 427, 311–312.

Duke, B., Flowers, P., & Wolfe, D. (1997). Children who study piano with excellent teachers in the United States. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 132, 51-84.

Ehrenberg, R. (2010). Music of the hemispheres. Science News, 178.4, 30-33.

Fitzpatrick, K. R. (2006). The effect of instrumental music participation and

socioeconomic status on Ohio fourth-, sixth-, and ninth-grade proficiency test

performance.J. Res. Music Educ., 54, 73–84.

Forgeard, M., Schlaug, G., Norton, A., Rosam, C., Iyengar, U., & Winner, E. (2014).

Practicing a musical instrument in childhood is associated with enhanced

verbal ability and nonverbal reasoning.PLoS ONE, 3, 10.

Forgeard, M., Winner, E., Norton, A., & Schlaug, G. (2008). Practicing a musical instrument in childhood is associated with enhanced verbal and nonverbal reasoning. PLoS ONE, 3, 10.

Franklin, M. S., Sledge-Moore, K., Yip, C-Y., Jonides, J., Rattray, K., & Moher, J. (2008).

The effects of musical training on verbal memory.Psychol. Music, 36, 353–


Fujioka, T., Ross, B., Kakigi, R., Pantev, C., & Trainor, L. (2006). One year of musical

training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young

children. Brain, September, 1-16.

Gaser, C., & Schlaug, G. (2003). Brain structures differ between musicians and non-

musicians. The Journal of Neuroscience, 23 (27), 9240-9245.

Gaser, C., & Schlaug, G. (2013). Brain structures differ between musicians and non-

musicians. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33 (36), 14629.

Goldstein, T. R., Wu, K., & Winner, E. (2009). Actors are skilled in theory of mind but

not empathy.Imagin. Cogn. Pers, 29, 115–133.

Golestani, N., Paus, T., Zatorre, R. J. (2002). Anatomical correlates of learning novel

speech sounds.Neuron, 35, 997–1010.

Gromko, J., & Poorman, A. S. (1998). The effect of music training on preschoolers' spatial-temporal task performance. Journal of Research in Music Education, 46, 173-181.

Gromko, J. (2005). The effect of music instruction on phonemic awareness in

beginning readers. Journal of Research in Music Education, 53, 199-209.

Habibi, A. & Damasio, A. (2014). Music, feelings, and the human brain.

Psychomusicology: Music Mind Brain, 24, 92–102.

Habibi, A., Ilari, B., Crimi, K., Metke, M., Kaplan, J., Joshi, A., Leahy, R., Shattuck, D., Choi, S., Haldar, J., Ficek, B., Damasio, A., & Damasio, H. (2014). An equal start: Absence of group differences in cognitive, social, and neural measures prior to music or sports training in children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 690.

Habibi, A., Wirantana, V., Starr, A. (2013). Cortical activity during perception of musical pitch: Comparing musicians and nonmusicians. Music Perception, 30.5, 463.

Habib, M., & Besson, M. (2009). What do music training and musical experience teach us about brain plasticity? Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26, 279-285.

Haimson, J., Swain, D., & Winner E. (2011). Do mathematicians have above average

musical skill?Music Percept, 29, 203–213.

Hallam, S. (2014). The power of music: Its impact on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people. Institute of Education, University of London.

Hannon, E. E., Trainor, L. J. (2007). Music acquisition: Effects of enculturation and formal training on development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 466-472.

Hassler, M., & Nieschlag, E. (1989). Masculinity, femininity, and musical composition: Psychological and psychoendocrino logical aspects of musical and spatial faculties. Archives of Psychology, 141, 71-84.

Hassler, M. (1992). Creative musical behavior and sex hormones: Musical talent and spatial abilities in the two sexes. Psychoneouroendocrinology, 17 (1), 55-70.

Hassler, M., Birbaumer, N., & Feil, A. (1985). Musical talent and visual-spatial abilities: A longitudinal study. Psychology of Music, 13, 99-113.

Herholz, S. C. & Zatorre, R. J. (2012). Musical training as a framework for brain

plasticity: behavior, function, and structure.Neuron, 76, 486–502.

Holden, C. (1998). Music as food for the brain. Science. 282.5393, 1409.

Hudziak, J., Albaugh, M. D., Ducharme, S., Karama, S., Spottswood, M., Crehan, E., Evans, A. C., Botteron, K. N. (2014). Cortical thickness maturation and duration of musical training: Health-promoting activities shape brain development. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 1053-1161.

Hunter, P. G. & Schellenberg, E. G. (2010). Music and emotion. Music Perception, 36,


Hurwitz, I., Wolff, P., Bortnick, B., & Kokas, K. (1975). Nonmusical effects of the Kodaly music curriculum in primary grade children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 8 (3), 45-52.

Hyde, K., Lerch, J., Norton, A., Forgeard, M., Winner, E., Evans, A., & Schlaug, G. (2010). Musical training shapes structural brain development. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 3019-3025.

Jakobson, L. S., Lewycky, S. T., Kilgour, A. R., & Stoesz, B. M. (2008). Memory for

verbal and visual material in highly trained musicians.Music Percept,20,


Jäncke, L. (2009). Music drives brain plasticity.Biol. Rep, 1, 78.

Jäncke, L., Schlaug, G., & Steinmetz, H. (1997). Hand skill asymmetry in professional

musicians. Brian and Cognition, 34 (3), 424-432.

Jentschke, S., Koelsch, S., Sallat, S., & Friederici, A. (2008). Children with specific

language impairment also show impairment of music-syntactic processing.

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20 (11), 1940-1951.

Jentzsch, I., Mkrtchian, A., & Kansal, N. (2014). Improved effectiveness of performance monitoring in amateur instrumental musicians. Neuropsychologia, 52 (100), 117-124.

Johnson, J. K-, Petsche, H., Richter, P., von Stein, A., & Filz, 0. (1996). The dependence of coherence estimates of spontaneous EEG on gender and music training. Music Perception, 13, 563-582.

Juslin, P. N., Liljeström, S., Västfjäll, D., Barradas, G., & Silva, A. (2008). An experience

sampling study of emotional reactions to music: listener, music, and

situation.Emotion, 8, 668–683.

Juslin, P. N. & Timmers, R. (2010). Expression and communication of emotion in

music performance. Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research,

Applications, 453–489.

Karma, K (1979). Musical, spatial and verbal abilities. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, no. 59, 50-53.

Kirschner, S. & Tomasello, M. (2009). Joint drumming: social context facilitates

synchronization in preschool children.J. Exp. Child Psychol, 102, 299–314.

Koelsch, S., Jentschke, S., Sammler, D., & Mietchen, D. (2007). Untangling syntactic

and sensory processing: an ERP study of music perception.Psychophysiology,

44, 476–490.

Kraus, N., Slater, J., Thompson, E., Hornickel, J., Strait, D., Nicol, T., & White-Schwoch, T. (2014) Music enrichment programs improve the neural encoding of speech in at-risk children. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 11913-11918.

Krings, T., Töpper, R., Foltys, H., Erberich, S., Sparing, R., Willmes, K, & Thron, A.

(2000). Cortical activation patterns during complex motor tasks in piano

players and control subjects: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Neuroscience Letters, 278, 189-193.

Laurence, F. (2008). Music and empathy. Music and Conflict Transformation

Harmonies and Dissonances in Geopolitics, 13–25.

Levitin, D. J. (2012). What does it mean to be musical?Neuron, 73, 633–637.

Limb, C. & Braun, A. (2008) Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance:

An fMRI study of jazz improvisation. PLoS ONE, 10.

Loui, P., Kroog, K., Zuk, J., Winner, E., & Schlaug, G. (2011). Relating pitch awareness to phonemic awareness in children: Implications for tone-deafness and dyslexia. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 111.

Maguire, E. A, Gadian, D. G., Johnsrude, I. S., Good, C. D., Ashburner, J., & Frackowiak,

R. S. (2000). Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi

drivers.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 97, 4398–4403.

Miendlarzewska, E. A. & Trost, W. J. (2013). How musical training affects cognitive

development: Rhythm, reward and other modulating variables. Frontiers in

Neuroscience, 7, 279.

Moreno, S., Bialystok, E., Barac, R., Schellenberg, E. G., Cepeda, N. J., & Chau, T.

(2011). Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive

function. Psychol Sci., 22, 1425–1433.

Moreno, S., Marques, C., Santos, A., Santos, M., Castro, S. L, & Besson, M. (2009).

Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: More

evidence for brain plasticity. Cerebral Cortex, 19 (3), 712-723.

Münte, T. F., Kohlmetz, C., Nager, W., & Altenmüller, E. (2001). Superior auditory

spatial tuning in conductors.Nature, 409, 580.

Newman, J., Rosenbach, J., Burns, K-, Latimer, B., Matocha, H., Rosenthal, E. (1995). An experimental test of "The Mozart Effect": Does listening to his music improve spatial ability? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81, 1379-1387.

Pantev, C., Engelien, A., Candia, V., & Elbert, T. (2001). Representational cortex in

musicians: Plastic alterations in response to musical practice. The Biological

Foundations of Music, 930, 300-314.

Parbery-Clark, A., Skoe, E., & Kraus, N. (2009). Musical experience limits the

degradative effects of background noise on the neural processing of sound.

The Journal of Neuroscience, 29 (45), 14100-14107.

Patel, A. D., & Iversen, J. R. (2007). The linguistic benefits of musical abilities. Trends

in Cognitive Science, 11, 369-372.

Patel, A., D. (2011). Why would musical training benefit the neural encoding of speech? The OPERA Hypothesis. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 142.

Patston, L. & Tippett, L. J. (2011). The effect of background music on cognitive

performance in musicians and nonmusicians.Music Percept, 29, 175–185.

Pilbrick, K., & Mallory, M. (1996, April). Music and the hemispheres: Stimulating brain development through music education. Paper presentation at the Music Educators National Conference.

Pinho, A. L., De Manzano, Ö., Berrebi, J., Eriksson, H., Fransson, P., & Ullén. (2013). Neural basis of expertise in musical creativity: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience. Poster presentation abstract.

Piro, J. M. & Ortiz, C. (2009). The effect of piano lessons on the vocabulary and verbal

sequencing skills of primary grade students.Psychol. Music, 37, 325–347.

Rabinowitch, T-C., Cross, I., & Burnard, P. (2012). Long-term musical group

interaction has a positive influence on empathy in children.Psychol. Music,

41, 484–498.

Rauscher, R., Shaw, G., & Ky, N. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature, 365, 611.

Rauscher, R., Shaw, G., & Ky, N. (1995). Listening to Mozart enhances spatial- temporal reasoning: Towards a neurophysiological basis. Neuroscience Letters. 185, 44.

Rauscher, F., Shaw, G., Levine, L., Ky, K., & Wright, E. (1994, August). Music and spatial task performance: A causal relationship. Paper presentation at the 102nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association.

Rauscher, R., Shaw, G., Levine, L., Wright, E., Dennis, W., & Newcomb, R. (1997). Music training cause long-term enhancement of preschool children's spatial-temporal reasoning. Neurological Research, 19, 2.

Rideout, B. E., Dougherty, S., & Wernert, L. (1998). Effect of music on spatial performance: A test of generality. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 86, 512-514.

Rideout, B. E., Taylor, J. (1997). Enhanced spatial performance following 10 minutes' exposure to music: A replication. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 85, 112-114.

Rosenkranz, K., Williamon, A., & Rothwell, J. (2007). Motorcortical excitability and

synaptic plasticity is enhanced in professional musicians. The Journal of

Neuroscience, 27 (19), 5200-5206.

Roy, Julie. (2013). Musical training influences sense of touch: Musical training improves the nervous system's ability to integrate information from multiple senses. Neuroscience. Presentation for the Society for Neuroscience.

Roy, Julie. (2013). Musical training shapes brain anatomy and affects function: Training before age seven has bigger impact on brain anatomy; improvisation can rewire brain. Neuroscience. Presentation for the Society for Neuroscience.

Salimpoor, V., Benovoy, M., Larcher, L., Dagher, A., & Zatorre, R. J. (2011).

Anatomically distinct dopamine release during anticipation and experience

of peak emotion to music. Nature Neuroscience, 14, 257-262.

Salimpoor, V., Desrocher, M. (2005). Development of executive function in children. Journal of Neuroscience, 87.

Salimpoor, V., & Zatorre, R. J. (2013). Neural interactions that give rise to musical pleasure. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 7, 62.

Sarnthein, J., von Stein, A., Rappelsberger, P., Petsche, H., Rauscher, F., & Shaw, G. (1997). Persistent patterns of brain activity: An EEG coherence study of the positive effect of music on spatial-temporal reasoning. Neurological Research, 19, 107-116.

Schellenberg, E. G. & Mankarious, M. (2012). Music training and emotion

comprehension in childhood. Emotion 12 887–891.

Schellenberg E. G. & Moreno S. (2010). Music lessons, pitch processing, and g.

Psychol. Music38 209–221.

Schellenberg, E. G. (2004). Music lessons enhance IQ. Psychol. Sci., 15, 511–514.

Schellenberg, E. G. (2006). Long-term positive associations between music lessons

and IQ. J. Educ. Psychol., 98, 457–468.

Schellenberg, E. G. (2011a). Examining the association between music lessons and

intelligence. Brit. J. Psychol., 102, 283–302.

Schellenberg, E. G. (2011b). Music lessons, emotional intelligence, and IQ. Music

Percept., 29, 185–194.

Schlaug, G., Amunts, K., Jäncke, L., & Zilles, Y. (1996). Hand motor covaries

with size of motor cortex: evidence for macrostructural adaptation in musicians. Proceedings of the International Conference on Music Perception

and Cognition, 433.

Schlaug, G., Jäncke, L., Hung, & Steinmetz. (1995). In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians. Science, 267, 699.

Schlaug, G., Norton, A., & Overy, K. (2005). Effects of music training on the child's

brain and cognitive development. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1060, 219-230.

Schlaug, G. (2001). The brain of musicians. A model for functional and structural

adaptation.Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.,930, 281–29.

Schneider, P., Scherg, M., Dosch, H. G., Specht, H. J., Gutschalk, A., & Rupp, A. (2002).

Morphology of Heschl's gyrus reflects enhanced activation in the auditory

cortex of musicians.Nat. Neurosci, 5, 688–694.

Schön, D., Magne, C., & Besson, M. (2004). The music of speech: music training

facilitates pitch processing in both music and language.Psychophysiology,41,


Shahin, A., Roberts, L. E., & Trainor, L. J. (2004). Enhancement of auditory cortical

development by musical experience in children.Neuroreport, 15, 1917–1921.

Sluming, V., Barrick, T., Howard, M., Cezayirli, E., Mayes, A., & Roberts, N. (2002).

Voxel-based morphometry reveals increased gray matter density in Broca's

area in male symphony orchestra musicians. NeuroImage, 17, 1612-1622.

Sluming, V., Taylor, J., Keller, S., Cezayirli, E., Roberts, N. (2003). Cerebellar volume

and its association with musical performance in symphony orchestra

musicians. NeuroImage, Vol. 19. No. 2.

Spray, A., Meyer, G. (2014) University of Liverpool, UK.

Steele, C., Bailey, J., Zatorre, R., & Penhune. (2013). Early musical training and white-

matter plasticity in the corpus callosum: Evidence for a sensitive period. The

Journal of Neuroscience, 33 (3), 1282-1290.

Stoesz, B. M., Jakobson, L. S., Kilgour, A. R. & Lewycky, S. T. (2007). Local processing

advantage in musicians: evidence from disembedding and constructional

tasks.Music Percept.25 153–165.

Stough, C., Kerkin, B., Bates, T., & Mangan, G. (1994). Music and spatial IQ. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 695.

Tillmann, B., Janata, P., & Bharucha, J. J. (2003). Activation of the inferior frontal

cortex in musical priming.Cogn. Brain Res., 16, 145–161.

Vaughn, K. (2000). Modest support for the oft-claimed relationship.J. Aesthetic.

Education, 149–166.

Wan, C., & Schlaug, G. (2010). Music making as a tool for promoting brain plasticity across the life span. Neuroscientist, 16, 566-577.

Wang, Y., Lei, X., Zhu, B., Liu, Q., & Dong, Q. (2013). In matters when you start: The age onset of music training predicts brain anatomy. Neuroscience. Poster presentation abstract.

White-Schwoch, T., Carr, K. W., Anderson, S., Strait, D. L., Kraus, N. (2013). Older

adults benefit from music training early in life: Biological evidence for long-

term training-driven plasticity. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33 (34), 17667-


Wong, P. C. M., Skoe, E., Russo, N. M., Dees, T., & Kraus, N. (2007). Musical experience

shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns. Nature

Neuroscience, 10, 420-422.

Zatorre, R., Chen, J., & Penhune V. (2007). When the brain plays music: auditory–

motor interactions in music perception and production.Nat. Rev. Neurosci,8,


Zatorre, R., & Salimpoor, V. (2013). From perception to pleasure: Music and its neural substrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 10430-10437.

Zatorre, R. (2005). Music, the food of neuroscience?Nature, 434, 312–315.

Zuk, J., Andrade, P., Andrade, O., Gardiner, M., Gaab, N. (2013). Musical, language, and reading abilities in early Portuguese readers. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 288.

Zuk, J., Benjamin, C., Kenyon, A., & Gaab, N. (2014). Behavioral and neural correlates of executive functioning in musicians and non-musicians. PLoS ONE, 9, 6.

Zuk, J., Ozernoy-Palchik, O., Kim, H., Lakshimarayanan, Gabrieli, J., Tallal, P., & Gaab, N. (2013). Enhanced syllable discrimination thresholds in musicians. PLoS ONE, 8, 12. 

You have to be a member to access this content.

Please login and subscribe to a plan if you have not done so.

March 1
Rediscovering the past: Alexander Borovsky

Comments 3

Already Registered? Login Here
Brian Marks on Wednesday, 14 March 2018 17:20

Your bibliography is a fantastic resource for those interested in the subject. Thank you!

Your bibliography is a fantastic resource for those interested in the subject. Thank you!
fuguebabe on Thursday, 15 March 2018 11:33

Thank you!!

Thank you!!
Jennifer Hancock on Tuesday, 17 July 2018 11:59

awesome! Is there a way to share this article on my facebook page?

awesome! Is there a way to share this article on my facebook page?

By accepting you will be accessing a service provided by a third-party external to https://www.ClavierCompanion.com/

About Piano Magazine

Piano Magazine is the leading resource for pianists, piano teachers, and piano enthusiasts. We bring you informative, interesting, and inspiring ideas on all aspects of piano teaching, learning, and performing. The official name of Clavier Companion magazine was changed to Piano Magazine in 2019.

Follow us on

Terms of use

Have Questions?

We are happy to help.

Editorial questions? This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Advertising questions? This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Subscription questions? This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Technical questions? This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.